Pisqa’ 98

Pisqa’ 981


“And every animal that parts the hoof,

which is split into two (shosa`at shes`a) and ruminates its cud” (Dt.14:6).

Unless it possesses all three of these signs,

it is not permitted as food.

Abba Hanan, in the name of R. Eliezer, says:

[the animal known as] the split one (shasu`ah)

is a kind of wild cattle.


[“Any clean bird you may eat” (Dt.14:11)].

Said R. Yoshaiah:

Any place [in Scripture] that specifies bird

the verse is identifying a clean one

[that may be eaten].

Said R. Isaac:

clean fowl is called fowl and it is called bird.

But an unclean one

is never called anything but fowl. 2


[“The buzzard, the falcon, and the kite” (Dt.14:13)] —

the kite (dayah)—it is a falcon (ayah).

And, in fact, they are all a kind of kite.

Isi b. Judah says:

there are 100 types of fowl in the East,

and all of them are a kind of falcon.

[One verse states]

“The buzzard (ra’ah), the falcon (‘ayah), and the kite” (dayah),

and any kind of raven (`oreiv)” (Dt.14:13).

[yet another verse states:]

“The falcon, the kite (da’ah), the buzzard . . . and any kind of raven” (Lv.11:14)—

why is this [list of unclean animals (Lv.11:1-47)]

restated in the Repetition of the Torah (Dt. 14:3-21)?

[Regarding] the cattle, because of the split one (shasu`ah),

and [regarding] the fowl—because of the kite,

[which is known as dayah (Dt.14:13) and da’ah (Lv.11:14)]3

  1. H:146; JN1:255.
  2. Sifra, shemini, per.5:3.
  3. Pisqa’98.1-2 appears out of place in relation to the flow of the scriptural text, while 98.3-4 is poorly attested in the textual tradition of Sifre. See Ish-Shalom, ad loc., n. 1, F:159, n.4, and his critical apparatus, ls. 4-11.